The Timeline of Islamic Revolution in Iran
The Timeline of Islamic Revolution in Iran
The new Iranian calendar year of 1979 began as people across the country angry with events of January 9, 1978, cried their wrath and hatred for the ruling Pahlavi dynasty.
Imam Khomeini, the then Leader of the Islamic Revolution, although in exile, led the Revolution’s events. He invited people to do their best and resist until the downfall of Shah’s regime. Imam also made people aware of plots hatched by enemies which could deviate the revolution from its goals.
The Iranian people held massive protest rallies in different cities after the Eid al-Adha’s prayers with the largest one was staged in Tehran and lasted for several hours. The unity and solidarity of the protestors and their apparent opposition to the ruling system made Shah’s regime seriously concerned.
In addition, large crowds of women joined the demonstration, sending the signal that all efforts of the regime for creating division between women and the religion were doomed to fail.
September 7, 1979
The marchers also declared that they would continue the protest for another day, later known as bloody September 7 in Iran, despite curfew imposed by the government. Next day, people took to the streets in many cities, chanting “down with Shah” and “The God is Great” and stood bravely against shots fired by the government forces.
Reports say that thousands of Iranians were martyred on that day by the government’s agents. Southern Tehran was filled with trucks of the regime’s armed forces and the hospitals were full of martyrs and wounded people. Sound of shots were heard everywhere.
September 7, 1979 manifests the Iranian nation’s strong will and faith in the revolution and turned to be a turning point in the history of the Islamic Revolution.
Beginning of Muharram
Few months later, with the beginning of the holy month of Muharram, Imam Khomeini whose movement was formed based on the movement of Imam Hossein (Prophet Mohammad’s Grandchild) issued a message, calling for the Iranian nation to continue popular protest in a bid to bring an end to the cruel Shah’s regime.
Muharram, a religious month is commemorated by Muslims across the world annually.
The Iranian people were once again ready to repeat events of Ashura against the then Yazid (Shah) with the motto of “Every day is Ashura and Every Land is Karbala”.
Formation of the Islamic Revolution’s Council
A message from Imam Khomeini was recited on January 13, 1979 to large crowds of people who held a gathering on the occasion of establishment of Tehran University.
The message said that the Islamic Revolution’s Council was officially founded.
“Due to the legitimate right and based on the trust of overwhelming majority of the people in me, a council called Islamic Revolution’s Council and consists of qualified, Muslim, committed and reliable people has been founded and will start working,” the message read.
The council was tasked with studying conditions for establishment of transitional government and providing the ground for it. The transitional government will be introduced to the people in the due time and will start its activities, the message added.
This was the first time that the revolution’s leader declared future plans for the Islamic government. The news had widespread reflections inside and outside of Iran and enheartened people who believed the revolution is close to the victory.
Escape of Shah
Shah fled the country on January 16, 1957, ten days after appointing Shahpour Bakhtiyar as prime minister and establishment of crown council.
The escape of Shah was the first step towards victory. Iranians had managed to make him flee after 37 years of cruel dominance. The people’s joy and cheer after receiving the news was remarkable.
Return of Imam Khomeini to home
Imam Khomeini returned to Iran on February 1, 1979, while millions of people were waiting for him for hours from Mehrabad Airport to Beheshte Zahra (the largest cemetery in Iran, located in the southern part of Tehran) to see their exiled leader.
Moreover, millions of Iranians came to capital Tehran from different cities to visit Imam Khomeini. Several Iranian clerics and old clerics of Imam Khomeini were also at the airport to welcome him.
Imam Khomeini had already planned to deliver speech at Tehran University, butit became impossible due to large crowds of people gathering there and Imam decided to give address in Beheshte Zahra. The relocation sent the message that Imam Khomeini respected martyrs and their path wholeheartedly, because he chose Beheshte Zahra instead of any other place for his speech after 15 years of exile.
Imam Khomeini delivered his historic speech in the cemetery of the martyrs of September 7.
Declaration of formation of interim government
Imam Khomeini settled in a simple residence in southern Tehran after returning from Beheshte Zahra.
Numerous people came to Imam’s residence to visit and talk to him. Iranian people were ready for new establishments after the arrival of Imam in Iran.
There were two governments in Iran from February 4-11, one was the Islamic Revolution’s interim government which received its legitimacy and legal nature from Imam Khomeini’s decree and was accepted by the Iranian nation, and the other one was a government run by Bakhtiyar, the then prime minister, whose cabinet members were banned from entering ministries buildings by the people and revolutionary employees of offices.
Attack on Iranian Army’s Air Force
Iranian people continued visiting Imam Khomeini as Iran was under great developments and everything was speaking of an imminent change.
On February 11, people went to the roofs at night, chanting “the God is Great”, but suddenly found out the Imperial Guard attacked and fired shot at several air force troops who had joined the revolution.
People rushed to air force base. Sever clashes and conflicts erupted among the marchers and lasted until the next morning. Air force troops were forced to open doors of the base as they saw the large crowds of people outside and make them armed.
Imposition of curfew
Serious conflicts erupted across Tehran as people got access to the weapons. On February 10, the state radio controlled by the military,imposed the state of emergency from 4:00 pm and banned any comings and goings in the streets.
It was clear that the US wanted to test its last plot. The decisive hours finally came. Everyone was ready for Imam Khomeini’s reaction to the serious threat.
Shortly before declaration of the state of emergency, Imam Khomeini’s Declaration which lifted the curfew spread among people across Tehran.
Imam has said that, “Today’s imposition of curfew is a plot and runs counter to the sharia. People should give no care to it at all. Dear brother and sisters do not fear and (know that) right is the winner with the will of the God.”
People came to the streets and the curfew was lifted by the marchers, but clashes began between the armed people,the Army forces who joined the common people and imperial guard’s tanks and troops.
Victory of Islamic Revolution in February 11, 1979
With the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on February 11, 1979, the revolutionary people took running the county and managing all affairs in their hands.
Hazrat Mohammad (PBUH) was born in the year 570 CE (53 years before the Hijrah) in the town of Mecca, a town in the high desert plateau of western Arabia. His name derives from the Arabic verb Hamada, meaning "to praise, to glorify."
Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic although he wrote one of his masterpieces, the Kitab al-Tafhim apparently in both Persian and Arabic, showing his mastery over both languages.
White Cane Day, as an international awareness raising event, celebrates the importance of the white cane and promotes a safe environment for long cane users
Imam Ali al-Naghi (a.s.) known as Imam Hadi – the tenth leader of Shia Muslims – was born on the 15th of Zul-Hajja, 212 AH. His father – Imam Javad (a.s.)
"...l hope people everywhere will join in observing this Day (Nowruz). At a time of crisis, upheaval and change, including in the very regions where the holiday is rooted, let the spirit of Nowruz prevail."